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常春藤生活英语【96】The Traditions of Halloween 万圣节传统

2010-11-12 21:12:36 来源:常春藤英语
 
 
The Traditions of Halloween 万圣节传统

  Halloween is a well-known holiday all over the world even though it is not celebrated in every country. The main traditions of Halloween are wearing costumes, carving pumpkins, telling stories, and going trick-or-treating1. But how did they start? Like Halloween itself, the traditions began from older customs in Ireland, Scotland, and England. Different religions have also helped shape Halloween into the holiday we know today.
  
  Modern Halloween began as Samhain, an Irish festival that celebrates the end of harvest2. During the festival, people would wear costumes or masks to make themselves look like evil spirits.
  
  Carving pumpkins started long ago with the Celts, who were rumored to be head hunters. They believed that on October 31, spirits walked among the living. Skulls3 of enemies were taken out and displayed on this day to scare away any evil spirits that came to the house. After the Celts stopped collecting skulls, they began carving faces out of gourds4. When their descendents5 went to North America, they discovered that pumpkins were larger and easier to carve. The tradition of the jack-o'-lantern6 has been carried on ever since.
  
  The Legend of Sleepy Hollow7 tells the tale of a headless ghost that rides a horse. It wandered around the countryside with a pumpkin on its shoulder. Every Halloween, children enjoy being frightened by this scary story.

即使不是每个国家都会庆祝万圣节,它仍是个举世闻名的节日。万圣节主要的传统活动为变装、刻南瓜、说故事及讨糖果。不过它们是怎么开始的?正如同万圣节本身一样,这些传统源自于爱尔兰、苏格兰与英格兰境内更古老的习俗。不同的宗教信仰也有助于使万圣节成为我们今日所熟悉的节日。
 
现代的万圣节起源于Samhain节,这是一个庆祝收割结束的爱尔兰庆典。在庆典当中,人们会变装或戴面具,试着让自己看起来像恶灵一般。

雕刻南瓜是许久以前由凯尔特人所起,据说他们皆为猎头族(编按:凯尔特人是欧洲古老民族之一,其分布地甚广)。他们认为在十月三十一日这天,鬼魂会现身于人间。凯尔特人会将敌人的头骨拿出来展示,用以吓走任何接近民舍的恶灵。凯尔特人停止搜集头骨之后,便开始在葫芦上刻出人脸。当凯尔特人的后裔到了北美洲时,他们发现南瓜更大也更易于雕刻。自此以后,南瓜灯笼的传统也就这么延续下去。

《断头谷传奇》述说着关于一位无头幽灵骑士的故事。它的肩上顶着一颗南瓜,在乡间到处纵马驰骋。每年万圣节,孩子们都喜欢被这恐怖故事吓得直打哆嗦。

Building Your Vocabulary

1. carve vt. 雕,刻
The couple carved their names into the tree.
那对情侣把他们的名字刻在树上。
2. display vt. 展示,陈列
Many paintings are displayed in that gallery.
那间艺廊里展示着多幅画作。
3. wander vi. 徘徊;漫步
Sarah wandered in the mall for hours.
莎拉在购物中心里闲逛了好几个小时。

Phrases for Learning

1. shape A into B  将 A 塑造成 B
My father shaped me into the man I am now.
我父亲把我培养成如今这样的一个男子汉。
2. be rumored to + 原形动词  据说∕谣传……
The young girl is rumored to have three children already.
那名年轻女子据说已有了三个小孩。
3. carry on...  持续∕继续……
Let's carry on our discussion tomorrow.
我们明天再来继续我们的话题好了。

Extra Words

1. trick-or-treating n. 不给糖就捣蛋(的活动)
2. harvest n. 收割;丰收
3. skull n. 头颅骨,头骨
4. gourd n. 葫芦
5. descendent n. 后代,后裔
6. jack-o'-lantern n. 南瓜灯笼
7. hollow n. 山谷(= valley)

Grammar Check

Like Halloween itself, the traditions began from...
(正如同万圣节本身一样,这些传统源自于……)
Like + 名词, 主词 + 动词  像……,……
Unlike + 名词, 主词 + 动词  不像……,……
注意:
like(像……)和 unlike(不像……)均为介词,其后可接受词,形成介词词组作形容词用,使用时通常置于句首,修饰其后的主词;亦可作插入语,置于主词与动词之间,两旁置逗点相隔。而 unlike 虽为介词 like 的反义字,但在句首或作插入语用时,则无 not like 之用法。例:
Unlike his brother, Gary likes to listen to classical music.
= Gary, unlike his brother, likes to listen to classical music.
(不像他哥哥,盖瑞喜欢听古典音乐。)

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