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常春藤解析英语【101】Gargoyle Statues 教堂的守护者—滴水嘴兽

2010-11-13 20:57:26 来源:常春藤英语
Gargoyle Statues 教堂的守护者—滴水嘴兽

by Suzanne Cowan

These statues with creepy faces have had a number of uses.

For over 2,000 years, gargoyle statues have been used to adorn buildings such as cathedrals and castles. Gargoyles, carved from stone, usually look like frightening mythical creatures. _(1)_ When placed on a building's exterior, they add an eerie visual interest, but they have served more practical purposes as well.
The word gargoyle comes from the French word gargouille, which means throat. Originally, gargoyle statues were used to protect a building from flooding during a heavy rainfall by directing water away from the building's rooftop. _(2)_ Although the word gargoyle had been used to refer to statues that served as waterspouts, it came to be used in a more general way and describes all kinds of statues perched upon buildings. It might seem curious that people made their waterspouts look like such terrifying creatures, but their sinister appearance is quite intentional. The reason was the belief that evil spirits would try to attack churches. _(3)_
Although gargoyles have been around for over 2,000 years, they are most often associated with the medieval period. _(4)_ The exterior of Notre Dame is heavily decorated with a variety of gargoyles. Some look like fantastical monsters, while others are sculptures of religious monks. Like many modern gargoyles, the ones at Notre Dame are decorative. _(5)_ Whether they fend off evil spirits, no one really knows.

(A) They do not serve the purpose of directing water off of the roof.
(B) A scary statue sitting on top of the building would frighten the evil spirits and prevent them from entering.
(C) A classic example of gargoyle statues from this time can be found at the Notre Dame Cathedral de Paris in France.
(D) Most gargoyles were made with spouts in their mouths from which the water poured out.
(E) Although they can be sculpted into many different forms, they are often winged animals with horns, demonic-looking humans, or a combination of the two.


1. 第一题空格应选 (E)
a. 空格前提及,滴水嘴兽(Gargoyles)是石头雕刻而成(carved from stone),通常看起来是吓人的神话怪物。
b. (E) 选项则说到,虽然它们(they)可以被雕刻成许多种不同的样貌(can be sculpted into many different forms),但大多是有翅膀的长角动物,或是面目狰狞的人类,也可能是两者的综合体。选项中的 they 指的就是 gargoyles,且两句有关键词 carved(被雕刻)与 sculpted(被雕刻),可知 (E) 为正选。
c. 虽然 (D) 选项看似可置入空格,与前一句皆有关键词滴水嘴兽(gargoyles),但置入后与后面一句语意不连贯,故不可选。
a. sculpt vt. 雕刻,雕塑
b. winged a. 有翼的,有翅膀的
c. horn n. 角,触角
d. demonic-looking  貌似恶魔的
demonic a. 恶魔般的
e. combination n. 结合(体)
例: The secret to this delicious dish is the combination of spices.

2. 第二题空格应选 (D)
a. 空格前提到,起初滴水嘴兽的作用是在大雨来临时,把水导离屋顶(directing water away from the building's rooftop),以避免建筑物淹水。
b. (D) 选项则进一步说明,大多数滴水嘴兽的嘴部都装有喷水口,以便将水排出(the water poured out),前后语意连贯,故选之。
a. spout n. 喷嘴,容器嘴
b. pour out  倾泻而出,涌出
例: Once the dam broke, water poured out all over the street.

3. 第三题空格应选 (B)
a. 空格前两句提到,人们将排水口做成吓人的怪物造型令人匪夷所思,但它们邪恶的外表是有其目的。这是因为以前的人相信恶灵会攻击教堂(evil spirits would try to attack churches)。
b. (B) 选项进一步说明,坐落在建筑物顶端的吓人雕像能够把恶灵吓跑(frighten the evil spirits),让他们无法进入教堂,语意连贯,且两句均有关键词 evil spirits(恶灵),故选之。
a. scary a. 吓人的
b. frighten vt. 使惊恐,使害怕
c. prevent sb/sth from + V-ing  防止∕阻止某人∕某物……
例: My flat tire prevented me from getting to work on time.

4. 第四题空格应选 (C)
a. 空格前提及,虽然滴水嘴已存在 2 千多年,但它们大多令人联想到中世纪(medieval period)。而空格后提及圣母院(Notre Dame)的外观有大量的滴水嘴兽作为装饰。
b. (C) 选项提及,当时(from this time)典型的滴水嘴兽雕像可见于法国巴黎的圣母院(Notre Dame Cathedral de Paris in France),选项中的 this time 指的就是 medieval period,且两句均有关键词 Notre Dame(圣母院),可知 (C) 为正选。

5. 第五题空格应选 (A)
a. 空格前提及,如同现代的滴水嘴,圣母院的滴水嘴兽纯粹为装饰用途(decorative)。
b. (A) 选项则说,它们(滴水嘴兽)不具有将雨水导离屋顶的功能,语意连贯,故选之。
a. serve the purpose of... 达到……的目的∕作用
例: This fence serves the purpose of keeping stray dogs out.
b. direct vt. 引导,指引
direct water off of the roof  将水导出屋顶


1. originally adv. 起初,原来
例: New York was originally a Dutch colony.

2. protect sb/sth from + N/V-ing  保护某人∕某物免于……
例: This sunscreen lotion will protect you from getting sunburned.

3. refer to...  指的是……
例: When Sarah mentioned a "rude person," she was referring to her colleague.

4. serve as...  作为……之用,充当……
= act as...
= function as...
例: My desk also serves as a kitchen table.

5. perch vt. 使处于(较高处或较危险处)
be perched on/upon...  处在……的顶上∕边上
例: The hawk was perched upon the treetop looking for prey.

6. be associated with...  与……联想在一起
例: Tulips are associated with Holland.

7. a variety of...  各式各样的……
例: That store has a variety of designer products.

8. fend off...  避开∕挡开……
例: The lone soldier fended off the attacks of nine men.
(那名士兵只身抵挡 9 名男子的攻击。)


1. gargoyle n.(多为怪兽像的)滴水嘴
2. adorn vt. 装饰
3. cathedral n. 大教堂
4. mythical a. 神话的
5. exterior n. 外部,外观 & a. 外部的
6. eerie a. 怪异的;令人毛骨悚然的
7. practical a. 实用的;实际的
8. rooftop n. 屋顶
9. waterspout n. 喷水嘴;排水口
10. sinister a. 邪恶的
11. intentional a. 有意的;蓄意的
12. medieval a. 中世纪的,中古时期的
13. fantastical a. 奇异的;虚构的
14. sculpture n. 雕像
15. monk n. 僧侣;修道士
16. decorative a. 装饰性的


1. direct sth away from...   把某物导离……
2. have been around for + 一段时间  已存在……(一段时间)
3. be decorated with...  用……装饰
4. some...others...  一些……另一些……


滴水嘴 "gargoyle" 这个字来自于法文 "gargouille",表『喉咙』之意。起初滴水嘴兽的作用是在大雨来临时,把水导离屋顶,以避免建筑物淹水。大多数滴水嘴兽的嘴部都装有喷水口,以便将水排出。虽然 gargoyle 一字一直被用来指任何可作为排水口的雕像,但之后则广泛引申为置于建筑物上端的任何一种雕像。人们将排水口做成吓人的怪物造型令人匪夷所思,但它们邪恶的外表是有其目的。这是因为以前的人相信恶灵会攻击教堂。坐落在建筑物顶端的吓人雕像能够把恶灵吓跑,让他们无法进入教堂。
虽然滴水嘴兽已存在 2 千多年,但它们大多令人联想到中世纪。当时典型的滴水嘴兽雕像可见于法国巴黎的圣母院。圣母院的外观有大量的滴水嘴兽作为装饰。有些看起来像奇珍异兽,而有些则是修道士的雕像。如同现代的滴水嘴,圣母院的滴水嘴兽纯粹为装饰用。它们不具有将雨水导离屋顶的功能。至于它们是否能阻挡恶灵,没人可以证实。

标准答案: 1. (E) 2. (D) 3. (B) 4. (C) 5. (A)

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